Paro Bruner, the first Creek Freedmen to enroll with the Dawes Commission.

Mr. Bruner was given the number 1 for his Dawes roll number. He was a former slave of a Creek Indian named Wash Barnett. After the Creek Nation was forced to emancipate their African slaves in 1866, Paro Bruner became a prominent Creek leader by serving as a elected Creek Council member in the House of Warriors for many years. He represented the Canadian Colored Tribal Town. He was the son of William and Affie Bruner, both slaves of Tom Bruner. Paro Bruner was married to Aggie Laudrum, who was listed as number 2 on the Dawes Roll. (This picture provided by the Oklahoma Historical Society Research Library and was taken around 1900.) He was at-least 75 years old at the time of this photo. There are many descendants of Paro Bruner today. The Creek Freedmen hope to hear their family stories as this site reaches out to them through the Internet world.